Breathing, foodwater, air, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 1st Root Chakra Anal, survival and safety This table should not be taken too literarily. Its main function is to show that there is a correspondence between levels in the Maslow's Hierarchy and the different Chakras and TA ego states.
In this article, the author traces the evolution of the CSR construct beginning in the s, which marks the mod- ern era of CSR. Definitions expanded during the s and proliferated during the s. In the s, there were fewer new definitions, more empirical research, and alternative themes began to mature.
These alternative themes included corpo- rate social performance CSPstakeholder theory, and business ethics theory. In the s, CSR continues to serve as a core construct but yields to or is trans- formed into alternative thematic frameworks. The concept of corporate social responsibility CSR has a long and varied history.
Formal writing on social responsi- bility, however, is largely a product of the 20th century, especially the past 50 years. Furthermore, although it is possible to see footprints of CSR thought throughout the world mostly in developed countriesformal writings have been most evident in the United States, where a sizable body of literature has accumulated.
At the same time, however, it must be acknowledged that related notions may have devel- oped both in theory and practice in other countries and at different times. A significant challenge is to decide how far back into the literature to delve to begin discussing the concept of CSR.
A good case could be made for about 50 years because so much has occurred since that time that has shaped our theory, research, and practice. For purposes of this definitional review, however, it makes sense to center our attention on more recent concepts of CSR.
Therefore, I start with the literature of the s and s and then move on toward the s and more recently, when the topic became widely discussed among academics and business practitioners. In this discussion, I organize my review of literature on a historical basis and treat the concept on the basis of decade-by-decade categories.
The goal is to trace the evolution of CSR as a concept, or definitional construct, and come to appreciate what it has meant in the past and still means today. Such a quest is essential to provide a solid foundation for further research on the topic. Space does not permit an exhaustive review, so my goal is to identify the major contributors to the evolution of the CSR definition, rather than to review all that has been said by anyone on the subject.
The publication by Howard R. Bowen of his landmark book Social Responsibilities of the Businessman is argued to mark the beginnings of the modern period of literature on this subject. Bowen set forth an initial definition of the social responsibili- ties of businessmen: It is fascinating to note that Bowen argued that social responsibility is no panacea, but that it contains an important truth that must guide business in the future.
Company and Community, Although Heald did not succinctly state definitions of social responsibility, he provided an interesting and provocative discussion of the theory and practice of CSR during the first half of the twentieth century.
THE S If there was scant evidence of CSR definitions in the literature in the s and before, the decade of the s marked a significant growth in attempts to formalize or, more accurately, state what CSR means. Davis argued that social responsibility is a nebulous idea but should be seen in a managerial context.
Furthermore, he asserted that some socially responsible business decisions can be justified by a long, complicated process of reasoning as having a good chance of bringing long-run economic gain to the firm, thus paying it back for its socially responsible outlook p. This is rather interesting inasmuch as this view became commonly accepted in the late s and s.
Davis became well known for his views on the relation between social responsi- bility and business power. Frederick was also an influential contributor to the early definitions of social responsibility as he wrote, [Social responsibilities] mean that businessmen should oversee the opera- tion of an economic system that fulfills the expectations of the public.
This latter statement hints at the notions of business ethics and corporate citizenship. In the first edition of their Business and its Environment textbook, Keith Davis and Robert Blomstrom defined social responsibility: Busi- nessmen apply social responsibility when they consider the needs and inter- est of others who may be affected by business actions.
Keith Davis revisited the concept of CSR inwhen he sought to understand the social responsibility puzzle.- Modern management theory argues that there should be a good 'fit' between organisational structures and human resources.
Team structures - Cross-functional teams bring together members from different functional departments. Physiological need is a concept that was derived to explain and cultivate the foundation for motivation. This concept is the basic foundation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
This term was coined to represent a similar premise as drive. Physiological needs are considered the . A Comparison Between Archie Carroll's The Pyramid Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need. There is an impressive history associated with the evolution of the concept and definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
In this article, the author traces the evolution of the CSR construct beginning in the s, which marks the modern era of CSR. Archie B. Carroll.
Business & Society 3 A need-hierarchy framework. (Crowther, )"The social contract between business and society is to a large extent formulated from shared understandings that exist in each area in the pyramid." (Carroll and Buchholtz, 19)If society's preferences change, there would be a redefining and thus renegotiation of the social contract.
The Pyramid of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a well-known theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation (Maslow, pg).” Subsequently, Abraham Maslow extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity.