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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Borderline intellectual functioning BIF is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient IQ between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life.
The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning.
These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction. Borderline intellectual functioning has been recently defined as a boundary status between disease and typical development, not stemming from a single neurodevelopmental syndrome and with heterogeneous functioning profiles Salvador-Carulla et al.
It is characterized by a wide range of cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient IQ between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility that affects daily activity American Psychiatric Association,; Tangney et al.
The lack of international consensus on diagnostic criteria makes it difficult to determine the current BIF prevalence. The concern with this condition lies in its impact on the quality of everyday life of the affected subjects Ninivaggi, ; Karande et al.
Indeed, this condition is closely associated with failure of social expectations, such as school dropouts, social isolation, inadequate affective relationships, and with the risk of developing mental illnesses in adolescence or adulthood, e.
A large part of these impairments, namely behavioral and affective disorders Cook and Oliver, ; van Nieuwenhuijzen and Vriens,are an expression of a low social adaptive functioning and can be traced back to a lack of adequate complex socio-cognitive skills Schalock et al. A pivotal role in the social competences growth is played by Theory of Mind ToM or mentalization, i.
ToM evolves early in human development and seems to be strictly embedded with many cognitive and affective processes, such as frontal functions Amodio and Frith, ; Grossmann, ; Devine and Hughes, emphatic concern Ibanez et al.
During development, ToM acquisition proceeds toward two levels of representation: Learned in late childhood, the latter are considered to require more cognitive resources for a review, see Miller,in particular competences executive functions Leslie et al.
Given the relevance of ToM in social adaptive adjustment, several studies have investigated this competence in intellectual disability ID demonstrating a strong correlation between concrete reasoning and ToM impairments Adrien et al. Specifically, Schalock et al.
Moreover, Jervis and Baker discovered that children with non specific ID had better performance on ToM tasks compared to adults with equal intellectual capacity. This would be due to the increment in social isolation that occurs over the years and that is frequently associated with ID.
However, cognitive competences are necessary but not sufficient for ToM development. Despite the importance of these abilities in ToM development, a normal IQ can be associated with very poor performance in social skills and ToM tasks.
For example, some subjects with high functioning autism Baron-Cohen et al. This finding suggests that the link between IQ and ToM development deserves further consideration, especially in the population of children with BIF, in which the latter is associated with impairment in social skills.
On the basis of this evidence, we suppose that an inadequate ToM functioning is likely to be connected with a social impairment in the case of BIF. Given the lack of data about ToM in children with BIF and their risk to develop social disadvantages with age, we have explored this construct in this population in comparison with children with typical development TD.
Moreover, we explored the correlation between performance in an advanced ToM task and IQ. To this purpose, we used the Strange Stories task that strongly involves both cognitive functioning and social competences.
Finally, given the importance of executive functions, in particular working memory, in ToM Devine and Hughes, and in BIF, we investigated, in children with BIF, their connection with the performance in the Strange Stories task.
All participants attended mainstream primary schools, near Don Gnocchi Foundation, and showed middle socio-economic status. A clinical interview revealed learning and social difficulties in all children with BIF.
They were recruited from the Adolescence and Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit of our institution. All children included in the study had never taken medications and underwent a clinical evaluation in order to exclude genetic syndromes, i.
The present study was approved by the scientific and ethics committees of Don Gnocchi Foundation and Catholic University of the Sacred Heart.Child Pornography Essay Examples. 1 page. An Analysis of Child Pornography Market on the Internet.
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