In general, the forces of competition are imposing a need for more effective decision making at all levels in organizations. Progressive Approach to Modeling:
Evaluating both the actual decision and the decision-making process Managers have to Decision theory and expected value their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved.
The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach. They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications.
This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions complex and novel decisions as contrasted to programmed decisions those that are repetitive and routine. One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives.
For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop. In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives.
Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events. A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events.
Each branch represents an alternative course of action. To make a decision tree it is necessary to: In extension, the decision-making process is often a group process.
Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process. In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal.
The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision.
As Drucker has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question. It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon.
Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance. Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives. The process, according to Marshallis based on five organizing principles: The organizing process involves five steps: In any organizing effort, managers must choose an appropriate structure.
Organizational structure is represented primarily by an organizational chart. It specifies who is to do what and how it will be accomplished. The organizing stage provides directions for achieving the planning results.
There are several aspects to organizing - time, structures, chain of command, degree of centralization, and role specification. Time Management Managers must decide what to do, when, where, how, and by or with whom.
Time management is the process of monitoring, analysing, and revising your plan until it works. Effective planning is a skill that takes time to acquire.
It is difficult to implement because you have no one but yourself to monitor how effectively you are using your time. Everyone has the same amount of time - hours per week. How that time is managed is up to the discretion of each person.
One extension agent joked that he was so busy taking time management courses, he had little time left to manage. Effective time management involves philosophy and common sense.
Time is not a renewable resource - once it is gone, it is gone forever. To function effectively, managers have to be able to prioritize and replace less important tasks with more important ones.
Most of us work for pay for only 1, hours per year.Expected utility: Expected utility, in decision theory, the expected value of an action to an agent, calculated by multiplying the value to the agent of each possible outcome of the action by the probability of that outcome occurring and then summing those numbers.
The concept of expected utility is used to. In decision theory, on making decisions under uncertainty—should information about the best course of action arrive after taking a fixed decision—the human emotional response of regret is often experienced.
The theory of regret aversion or anticipated regret proposes that when facing a decision, individuals might anticipate regret and thus incorporate in their choice their desire to.
click here Decision Making and Problem Solving by Herbert A. Simon and Associates. Associates: George B. Dantzig, Robin Hogarth, Charles R. Piott, Howard Raiffa. Expected value theory. Expected value can also be used in a slightly different sense: under some assumptions about rational decision making, people should always pick the project with the highest expected value (Wikipedia a).
For proofs that rational agents should select projects with the highest expected value. In economics, game theory, and decision theory the expected utility hypothesis, concerning people's preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles), states that the subjective value associated with an individual's gamble is the statistical expectation of that individual's valuations of the outcomes of that gamble.
The minimization is over all elements of the decision vector Y ³ 0, the scalar y is unrestricted in sign, and U is an n- dimensional column vector with all elements equal to one.
The left hand side of the first n constraints, by definition, is player II's expected return against player I's pure strategies.