September 26, With its 4, employees and 32, students, the University of Graz provides an exciting and varied work environment. Given our expertise in research and teaching, we are a central institution in Styria. Research is undertaken in theories of justice and ethics, environmental law and economics of climate change as well in the field of physical climate science, meteorology and hydrology, system and sustainability sciences. Research undertaken within the DK is meant to contribute to and answer the overarching research questions of the DK Climate Change:
References and Further Reading 1. Analytic Jurisprudence The principal objective of analytic jurisprudence has traditionally been to provide an account of what distinguishes law as a system of norms from other systems of norms, such as ethical norms.
As John Austin describes the project, analytic jurisprudence seeks "the essence or nature which is common to all laws that are properly so called" Austinp. Accordingly, analytic jurisprudence is concerned with providing necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of law that distinguish law from non-law.
While this task is usually interpreted as an attempt to analyze the concepts of law and legal system, there is some confusion as to both the value and character of conceptual analysis in philosophy of law. As Brian Leiter points out, philosophy of law is one of the few philosophical disciplines that takes conceptual analysis as its principal concern; most other areas in philosophy have taken a naturalistic turn, incorporating the tools and methods of the sciences.
To clarify the role of conceptual analysis in law, Brian Bix distinguishes a number of different purposes that can be served by conceptual claims: Bix takes conceptual analysis in law to be primarily concerned with 3 and 4. In any event, conceptual analysis of law remains an important, if controversial, project in contemporary legal theory.
Conceptual theories of law can be divided into two main headings: Nevertheless, Ronald Dworkin's view is often characterized as a third theory partly because it is not clear where he stands on philosophy master thesis topics question of whether there is a conceptual relation between law and morality.
Natural Law Theory All forms of natural law theory subscribe to the Overlap Thesis, which is that there is a necessary relation between the concepts of law and morality.
According to this view, then, the concept of law cannot be fully articulated without some reference to moral notions.
Though the Overlap Thesis may seem unambiguous, there are a number of different ways in which it can be interpreted. The strongest form of the Overlap Thesis underlies the classical naturalism of St. Thomas Aquinas and William Blackstone. As Blackstone describes the thesis: This law of nature, being co-eval with mankind and dictated by God himself, is of course superior in obligation to any other.
It is binding over all the globe, in all countries, and at all times: In this passage, Blackstone articulates the two claims that constitute the theoretical core of classical naturalism: On this view, to paraphrase Augustine, an unjust law is no law at all.
Related to Blackstone's classical naturalism is the neo-naturalism of John Finnis Finnis believes that the naturalism of Aquinas and Blackstone should not be construed as a conceptual account of the existence conditions for law.
According to Finnis see also Bix,the classical naturalists were not concerned with giving a conceptual account of legal validity; rather they were concerned with explaining the moral force of law: On Finnis's view of the Overlap Thesis, the essential function of law is to provide a justification for state coercion.
Accordingly, an unjust law can be legally valid, but cannot provide an adequate justification for use of the state coercive power and is hence not obligatory in the fullest sense; thus, an unjust law fails to realize the moral ideals implicit in the concept of law.
An unjust law, on this view, is legally binding, but is not fully law. Lon Fuller rejects the idea that there are necessary moral constraints on the content of law.
On Fuller's view, law is necessarily subject to a procedural morality consisting of eight principles: On Fuller's view, no system of rules that fails minimally to satisfy these principles of legality can achieve law's essential purpose of achieving social order through the use of rules that guide behavior.
A system of rules that fails to satisfy P2 or P4for example, cannot guide behavior because people will not be able to determine what the rules require. Accordingly, Fuller concludes that his eight principles are "internal" to law in the sense that they are built into the existence conditions for law: Legal Positivism Opposed to all forms of naturalism is legal positivismwhich is roughly constituted by three theoretical commitments: The Social Fact Thesis which is also known as the Pedigree Thesis asserts that it is a necessary truth that legal validity is ultimately a function of certain kinds of social facts.
The Conventionality Thesis emphasizes law's conventional nature, claiming that the social facts giving rise to legal validity are authoritative in virtue of some kind of social convention. The Separability Thesis, at the most general level, simply denies naturalism's Overlap Thesis; according to the Separability Thesis, there is no conceptual overlap between the notions of law and morality.
The Conventionality Thesis According to the Conventionality Thesis, it is a conceptual truth about law that legal validity can ultimately be explained in terms of criteria that are authoritative in virtue of some kind of social convention. Thus, for example, H.
Hart believes the criteria of legal validity are contained in a rule of recognition that sets forth rules for creating, changing, and adjudicating law. On Hart's view, the rule of recognition is authoritative in virtue of a convention among officials to regard its criteria as standards that govern their behavior as officials.
While Joseph Raz does not appear to endorse Hart's view about a master rule of recognition containing the criteria of validity, he also believes the validity criteria are authoritative only in virtue of a convention among officials.The aim of this thesis is to defend a reading of Descartes’ theory of sensory perception in which, against a widespread interpretation, the mind is not a passive receiver of inputs from the environment, but an active.
Best essay writing service helps you save free time and get better grades. Order a paper now in three clicks and have the evening to yourself. Sample Dissertation / Thesis Example. Below you can find samples of thesis/dissertation papers, as well as samples of single chapters and proposals completed by our writers.
Bernard Mandeville is primarily remembered for his impact on discussions of morality and economic theory in the early eighteenth century.
His most noteworthy and notorious work is The Fable of the Bees, which triggered immense public criticism at the time. He had a particular influence on. Guidelines for Master's Proposals and Theses Before signing up for PHIL Thesis, students must have a thesis proposal, a thesis director and a thesis committee.
MA Thesis Proposal Approval Form - This form must be filed in the Philosophy Department before the student is permitted to register for PHIL Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy.
He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.