Physiological Analysis as is used in Criminal Investigations Abstract The rate of crime has been increasing at a very high rate in the society. In consistent with this, criminal investigation agencies have continued to research on the appropriate strategies to combat rising criminal activities in the society. The paper will begin by looking at how this analysis is used in criminal investigation activities, before moving on to the importance of this approach in investigation. Additionally, this research will look at the pro and cons of using psychological and physiological analysis in criminal investigation.
Although many large police agencies and some medium-sized ones employ full-time clinical psychologists, most agencies contract for part-time work with clinical psychologists who often maintain separate private practices.
The practice of psychology in police settings has also been a research, consultation, and training endeavor by psychologists who have backgrounds in, for instance, experimental, social, and industrial-organizational psychology.
Therefore, generally, police psychology is a field of practice in which psychologists of different training investigate and apply psychological knowledge to police settings and problems.
Here, this does not include other law enforcement settings and professionals, such as sheriffs, marshals, or correctional officers, who at times perform job tasks similar to police officers. Psychological services for the police have traditionally involved evaluating police applicants, educating and training police officers, evaluating job tasks and duties, and carrying out fitness-for-duty assessments.
Today, most police agencies recognize and use a psychological evaluation as one part of the selection of police officers. Typically, licensed clinical psychologists carry out the evaluation.
Other psychologists screen out applicants who demonstrate undesirable characteristics and recommend that police agencies no longer consider employing them. Many psychologists use both screen-out and select-in evaluation strategies, by which they screen out psychopathology and select in ideal police characteristics.
Both focus on screening for suitable applicants. Evaluations typically involve administering a battery of psychological tests, carrying out a personal interview, giving situational tests, and making a selection recommendation.
Psychological test batteries administered by psychologists have included intelligence tests, personality tests, projective tests, and situational tests. Scholarly research has linked intelligence tests with success on the job and in recruit training. Psychologists use personality tests to measure the relatively stable characteristics or traits of applicants.
These tests are self-report, paper-and-pencil personality inventories. Research has shown empirical support for their usefulness in predicting what police applicants might say or do on the job—for example, being late or absent, using drugs, violating police procedures and rules, and using excessive force.
Few psychologists continue to use projective tests, which ask applicants to respond to unstructured situations or stimuli, such as the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Less frequent among psychologists is the use of situational tests, in which police applicants engage a role-playing exercise usually representative of job-related work conditions.
There has been little empirical evidence supporting the use of projective and situational tests in screening police applicants for law enforcement training. Psychologists supplement test scores from a battery of psychological tests with information obtained from a personal interview, a common component of the psychological evaluation.
Their interview, in part, usually involves a structured question format. Personal interviews with police applicants help psychologists interpret and validate test data sources.
Educating and Training Police Officers The police have the responsibility to keep the peace, maintain order, enforce laws, and safeguard the well-being of the community. This kind of duty to act involves the possibility of danger all the time, puts police officers at risk, and requires education and training.
Critical issues in police education and training to which psychologists have given considerable attention are negotiating hostage and barricaded-suspect HBS situations, handling people with mental illness, conducting criminal investigations, and managing job-related stress.
Negotiating Hostage and Barricaded-Suspect Situations Most police agencies have and employ critical incident teams, sometimes called special response teams SRT or special weapons and tactics SWAT teams, to resolve or assist in resolving high-threat or special-threat conditions, such as HBS situations.
The first police approach to handling an HBS situation was an assault, which involved officers primarily using forceful options, often with lethal consequences for suspects.
In the early s, psychologists and sworn personnel developed verbal tactics as alternatives to the assault option.
Such tactics focused on police officers extending incident time to de-escalate the situation and talking suspects into surrendering. Police records have shown that critical incidents teams successfully resolve most HBS situations without injury to participants when police officers negotiate verbally.
When police agencies used clinical psychologists to negotiate such situations, the rate of success without injury to participants increased.
There are also private companies that develop and deliver specialized training in negotiation skills. Trainers are usually experienced police negotiators who are sometimes psychologists. Police agencies that employ full-time clinical psychologists sometimes use them to educate and train their critical incident team negotiators and work at times with them to resolve, or assist in resolving, HBS calls for service.
Negotiation activities primarily focus on containing suspects, negotiating with them, uncovering the personal factors motivating their behavior, and extending incident time, which gives suspects the opportunity to vent their emotions and make sensible decisions.
Negotiation training typically emphasizes developing active listening skills through role-playing. Scholarly research on the effectiveness of negotiation training is in its infancy. Generally, however, there is much research that needs to be done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of crisis negotiation training.
Handling People with Mental Illness The police are having more contacts with people with mental illness.Criminal profiling: the reality behind the myth. Forensic psychologists are working with law enforcement officials to integrate psychological science into criminal profiling. Profiling for the law enforcement and criminal justice systems involves psychological assessment of the offender.
The assessment contains socio- demographic information viz. age, gender, marital status, education, occupation and the social and psychological attributes of the offender. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS UNDERLYING CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Melitta Schmideberg, M.D. Dr. Schmideberg is Psychiatrist to The Institute for the Scientific.
The present paper is an attempt to understand the importance of psychological profiling in criminal investigation. Though the importance of psychological profiling was recognized as early as in. Profiling for the law enforcement and criminal justice systems invoves psychological assessment of the offender.
The assessment contains socio-demographic information viz. age, gender, marital status, education, occupation and the social and psychological attributes of the offender. Conducting Criminal Investigations. Psychologists have studied the procedures and tactics used by the police in criminal investigations.
They have produced psychological knowledge and have helped the police apply it to criminal investigation techniques such as eyewitness identification.