One of the last photos of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Biographer Alexander Poznansky writes that on 1 November [ O. During the meal, Tchaikovsky ordered a glass of water.
Which of these is love? Thousands of answers have been offered—but surprisingly few by biologists, including brain scientists. While scientists regard other complex emotional states such as depression, anxiety, or fear as complex, but not unfathomable, love is relegated to the poets and songsters.
Certainly such love can be a joyous state, but it is also capable of producing deeply disturbing, even dangerous results. At least 25 percent of homicides in the United States involve spouses, sexual partners, or sexual rivals.
Each year, some one million American women are followed and harassed by rejected lovers;men are stalked by former partners; and approximately 1. In fact, male sexual jealousy is the foremost cause of wife battering in cultures worldwide.
Husbands, although to a lesser degree, are physically abused by wives. Love is a powerful force; the vast majority of Americans marry. But the divorce rate in the United States is expected to reach 67 percent in the next decade.
Currently, some 80 percent of divorced men and 72 percent of divorced women remarry; but 54 percent and 61 percent, respectively, divorce again. High divorce and remarriage rates are seen in many other cultures, as well. It is time to investigate the biology of this bittersweet experience we call love.
The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek sexual union with any appropriate partner. In humans, attraction is also associated with feelings of exhilaration, intrusive thinking about the beloved, and the craving for emotional union.
Attraction, I hypothesize, is associated in the brain primarily with high levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine and with low levels of serotonin.
In humans, attachment is also characterized by feelings of calm, security, social comfort, and emotional union. Attachment is associated in the brain primarily with the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. For each system, the neural circuits can be expected to vary from one species to the next, among individuals within a species, and over the life of an individual.
The three emotion systems also act in concert with one another and with other bodily systems. For example, a person may begin a sexual liaison merely for sexual pleasure, then become romantically involved with this sexual partner.
He can become deeply attached to this partner, too, and these enhanced feelings of attachment can be explained biologically. After orgasm, levels of vasopressin rise in men; levels of oxytocin rise in women.
These hormones are known to cause attachment, and probably contribute to the feelings of closeness after sexual intercourse.What creates new love’s sense of uniqueness, intrusive thoughts, intense attention, and raging emotions—our culture or our brain?
Anthropologist Helen Fisher argues that lust, attraction, and abiding attachment may follow distinct tracks in our brains, often dislocating the mating process in ways that result in our epidemics of spouse battering, and divorce.
Thirdly, Juliet and Romeo were never in love, plain and simple. And fourthly, defining infatuation. Clearly, Shakespeare has mistaken love for infatuation in this play. The Power of Love! - A person in love feels stronger, faster, better overall, Love is the power of telepathy the ability to fully understand someone without having to talk to simply understand or relate.
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