Update, September 17 Preliminary draft of part I of a book on fiscal theory.

How do sales vary from month to month? How does engine performance change as its temperature increases? On average, how much sleep do people get, based on their age? Does the distance a child lives from school affect how frequently he or she is late? You can only use line graphs when the variable plotted along the x-axis is continuous — for example, time, temperature or distance.

When the y-axis indicates a quantity or percent and the x-axis represents units of time, the line graph is often referred to as a time series graph. Here, sales drop off during the summer months, and around New Year. Example of a Line Graph While some seasonal variation may be unavoidable in the line of business ABC Enterprises is in, it may be possible to boost cash flows during the low periods through marketing activity and special offers.

Line graphs can also depict multiple series.

In this example, you might have different trend lines for different product categories or store locations, as shown in figure 4 below. Here the height of the bar represents the measured value or frequency: ABC Enterprises sells three different models of its main product: By plotting the sales of each model over a three year period, it becomes easy to see trends that might be masked by a simple analysis of the figures themselves.

In figure 5, you can see that, although the Deluxe is the highest-selling of the three, its sales have dropped off over the three year period, while sales of the other two have continued to grow. Perhaps the Deluxe is becoming outdated and needs to be replaced with a new model?

Example of a Bar Chart Of course, you could also represent this data on a multiple series line graph as shown in figure 6. In this example, the line graph actually works better than the bar graph, but this might not be the case if the chart had to show data for 20 models rather than just three.

The opposite is not always true. When your x-axis variables represent discontinuous data such as different products or sales territoriesyou can only use a bar graph. In general, line graphs are used to demonstrate data that is related on a continuous scale, whereas bar graphs are used to demonstrate discontinuous data.

Data can also be represented on a horizontal bar graph as shown in figure 7. This is often the preferred method when you need more room to describe the measured variable.

It can be written on the side of the graph rather than squashed underneath the x-axis. Example of a Horizontal Bar Graph Note: A bar graph is not the same as a histogram.

On a histogram, the width of the bar varies according to the range of the x-axis variable for example,and so on and the area of the column indicates the frequency of the data. With a bar graph, it is only the height of the bar that matters.

Pie Charts A pie chart compares parts to a whole. As such it shows a percentage distribution.The research in the field of astrophysics have the symbols and graphical representations and also the professions like statistician, numerologist ant astronomy has the symbols and graphical studies.

This very interesting type of studies which requires a special kid of interest in the people who are studying it. Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc. And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames.

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The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability.

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